This infographics illustrates the mechanism of action of Fotoditazin — a photosensitizing anticancer drug used in the photodynamic therapy. Fotoditazin was developed by Russian company Veta Grand and is used in therapy of cervical, stomach and lung cancer, basal cell carcinoma and some other types of cancer.
Photosensitizers are chemical compounds that increase the sensitivity of biological tissues to the light of a particular wavelength. Photosensitizers absorb the energy of light and trigger the reactions that result in cytotoxic reactive oxygen species synthesis. These oxygen molecules damage cellular membranes and proteins leading to cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Cancer cells capture significantly more delivered photosensitizer molecules than surrounding normal tissue due to significant changes in metabolism. The subsequent irradiation of damaged area by the light of the proper wavelength causes death of the cancer cells in the treated area. This type of therapy is called photodynamic therapy. Photodynamic therapy has less side effects than chemotherapy and is considered to be safer than surgery in case of large tumors or significant comorbid conditions. Wavelength of 662 nm used in Fotoditazin therapy effectively penetrates biological tissues, which enables to carry out treatment of deeply formed tumors. High selectivity of Fotoditazin therapy is based on the ability of tumor cells to capture the drug ten times more effectively than normal cells do. Fotoditazin is eliminated from the body within 24 hours which reduces the risk of side effects.